Pacific warning system


Earthquakes and Plate Boundaries Deborah Jordan and Samuel Spiegel Jordan, Deborah and Spiegel, Samuel: Learning Research Development Center, University of Pittsburgh. Earthquakes and Plate Boundaries. Lecture 12 Earthquake Magnitude Locating Earthquakes Last time, we learned that we could obtain a rough estimate of the distance in miles to an earthquake epicenter by multiplying the S - P time interval The DEFCON Warning System is a private intelligence organization which has monitored and assessed nuclear threats The next scheduled update is 7 P.M. Pacific Time, September 24th, 2017 1 Pacific tsunami warning system is creditable or not Basic Studies in the Natural Science, RUC Building 7.1 Supervisor: Peter Frederikssen 4th Semester, Spring 2007 Group 42: Yang Liu, Ru Liu, Jingjing Liu, Lei Hong, Shenyuan Wang, Hui Zhao, Kangming Wu

U.S. Tsunami Warning Center

  1. Plate Tectonics Hi, I am Zed and I am going to take you on a trip learning about Plate Tectonics And I am Buddy Zed s mascot Continental Drift Alfred Wegener proposed that continents were not always where
  2. Name: Class: Date: Plate Tectonics Short Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The existence of coal beds in Antarctica
  3. e its parameters (hypocenter, magnitude, and origin time), and issue an alert to sites/areas where necessary actions..
  4. Name: Class: Date: ID: A Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics -- Multi-format Test Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the
  5. Made up of seismographic stations and deep-ocean sensors, the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System was activated in June 2006 after an agreement at a United Nations conference in Japan.
  6. 24 4.3 Tsunami Warning System Overview of Tsunami warning system Let s image that a violent undersea earthquake cause a huge tsunami wave and getting close to our homes where we living along the coastal of Pacific Ocean. Figure 4.4: The picture in left gives us an overview of the tsunami warning processes. Thus we can pick up main elements for identification a tsunami in the warning center. (Ref: The Tsunami Warning System How Does It Work? ; Page 5, ) Then we got authoritative information that warning us to evacuate out of the city we live, but people may lose millions of dollars if they absolutely following the evacuation order. Can we trust these guys who working with the tsunami warning Page 24 of 71
  7. Burglar alarm and warning systems, see 13.310 Warning devices for road vehicles, see 43.040.20. Ergonomics — System of auditory and visual danger and information signals

Pacific System (PTWS) - International Tsunami Information Cente

Emergency warning systems for mining vehicles. In recent years, ECCO Group Asia Pacific has successfully designed and installed many of its innovative systems in military, fire, ambulance, police.. In the wake of the disaster, calls are being made for a tsunami warning system to be established for the Indian Ocean. Everyone—from the Indian and Thai governments to their counterparts in Canberra and Washington—is pledging to set one up. According to the UN, the necessary steps could be taken within a year. But the obvious question is: why was a system comparable to the one in the Pacific not established previously?The December 26 earthquake registered 9 on the Richter scale, making it the largest since the Alaskan quake and one of the most massive in the last century. The epicentre of the initial tremor was off the northwest coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra, followed by a series of aftershocks that ran north through the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal. Two tectonic or continental plates—the Asian and Indian—shifted along a 1,000km fault line by as much as 20 metres, releasing energy equivalent to more than 20,000 nuclear bombs of the size dropped on Hiroshima in 1945.

Video: Pacific Northwest Drought Early Warning System Drought

Alfred Wegener s Theory of Continental Drift Became Modern Plate Tectonics Wegener in Greenland about 1912. He froze to death there in 1930. Science is self correcting. The Scientific Method The history 27 get local tsunami data but distant tsunami. For remedy this limitation, NOAA put deepwater instrument which called DART (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis) in 1997, by the end of 2003, there were seven DART in the deep-ocean of the Pacific. (Ref 63) Definition of Tsunami Warning System (TWS). A tsunami warning system is a system to detect tsunamis and issue warning to preventless of life. A tsunami warning system consists of two equally important components: a network of sensors to detect tsunamis and a communications infrastructure to issue timely alarms to permit evacuation of coastal areas. (Ref 64) Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis II (DART II) DART II system is made by NOAA s Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL). It is the second generation of DART. There are six buoys that comprising a array to monitor and report water column height in the Pacific Ocean. The column data return ratio of the array is 91% DART II System Components The DART II System has two important parts: a tsunameter is put in undersea and a buoy which can transport information between tsunameter and satellite. Page 27 of 71

The system that are traditionally considered part of strategic defense -- missile defense, the early-warning system, space surveillance and anti-satellite systems -- are currently included in the.. 'Computers are like Old Testament gods; lots of rules and no mercy' Joseph Campbell Computers are supposed to make things better and save us time and nerves. Ideally It triggered a Pacific-wide tsunami that caused deaths as far away as Hawaii and Japan. Following the devastating Boxing Day earthquake in Sumatra in 2004 a tsunami warning system was developed.. In the first test of the system since the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004, a magnitude 9.2 quake was After the quake struck, messages were sent out to 30 countries from the Pacific Tsunami Warning..

The quake occurred just before 8 a.m. Sumatran time [1 a.m. GMT]. Eight minutes later, an alarm was triggered at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre in Hawaii by seismic signals transmitted from stations in Australia. Three minutes after that, a message was sent to other observatories in the Pacific. At 8.14 a.m., an alert notified all countries participating in the network about the quake, indicating that it posed no threat of a tsunami to the Pacific. This preview shows page 64 - 71 out of 74 pages. ° ° Pacific Warning System ° Established in 1946. ° -Tide gauges and buoys confirm formation of tsunami. ° 100s of Seismic stations ° KEY CONCEPT Plates converge or scrape past each other. BEFORE, you learned Plates move apart at divergent boundaries In the oceans, divergent boundaries mark where the sea floor spreads apart On land,

Chapter Overview. Bathymetry. Measuring Bathymetry. Echo Sounding Record. Measuring Bathymetry. CHAPTER 3 Marine Provinces

Site includes news, system and operating notes, technical photographs, databases and related Cockpit aural warnings include the fire bell, take-off configuration warning, cabin altitude, landing.. Our systems work by supplying a controlled amount of DC current to submerged surfaces using highly reliable mixed metal oxide anodes and zinc reference electrodes. This electrical current, constantly.. When a quake hits, data is sent to the Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre in Hawaii and the Japan Meteorological Agency, which coordinate with national tsunami centres in the region.

The creation of an international tsunami warning system in the Pacific Ocean is the direct result of the increased frequency of teletsunamis in this zone between 1946 and 1964: over a period of twenty.. 21 The speed decreases into km/hr (30-85m/s) when it crossing the continental shelf. The speed is only around 36km/hr (10m/s) as the wave arriving at the shore. (Ref 45) We can get the wavelength by the finite depth of ocean and the mechanics of tsunami waves. So, the wavelength is between 10km to 500km. The relationship between wave height and wavelength is very low in the open sea. (Ref 46) That means if the wave is not very deep, they almost have no relationship. Vice versa, if the oceans is enough deep, the relationship between them will be oscillatory. So, the velocity of wave will have a simpler formula in the shallow water, the equation has been introduced in the theory part. There are a couple of waves in the process of traveling. The speed of them is not same. If the wavelength is same, the short period waves have a fast speed. So, we get other formula about wavelength, velocity and period: L = CT In this formula, the L is wavelength, the unit is m. The T is wave period, the unit is second. (Ref 47) We have analyzed the velocity of waves in open sea. But when the wave arrive the shore, the velocity is absolutely different. At first, as we all know, when the tsunami arrive the shore, the run-up of it will be happened. It will be much higher than the height of waves in the open sea. For example, "the largest run-up height recorded was that produced on 9th July in 1958 by an earthquake-triggered landslide in Lituya Bay, Alaska. Water swept 524m above sea level up the shoreline on the opposite side of the bay, and a 30 to 50m-high tsunami propagated down the bay."(ref 48) So the equation of maximum run-up height is: H rmax = 2.83(cotB)H s 1.25 Page 21 of 71

A challenge inherent in the tsunami warning system plan is getting all of the affected countries to The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, which issues tsunami warnings to Hawaii, countries in the.. PMEL Press Releases and NOAA News Stories FY09- FY14 PMEL WIDE Oceanographer named to head NOAA s Seattle research laboratory http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2011/20111018_pmel.html CLIMATE THEME most Frolov said: 'If the Chinese missile attack warning system will be integrated with Russia's, we will get increased detection range for the US ballistic missiles launched from submarines in the South Pacific.. 25 system and how do they work in the warning center? So the first thing we need to know about is in which conditions makes the warning center publishing evacuation order to the potential damaged area. Main elements to the warning center contain three aspects, Detection, Modeling and prediction. Processes before Tsunami Warning Center are part of detection which means collection primary information (seismic data, sea-level observation and undersea pressure counting). Warning center using computer program simulate the process of Tsunami wave transferring and get the answer of where will be hit. That s the processes we called modeling and prediction. Nice result based on good data which means the accurate measuring and observation, however, identification Tsunami is quite complicated combination of different kinds of information. The key for prediction hitting area is numerical modeling For reducing the loss of life and property, the tsunami warning system try to forecast the potentially tsunami, ahead of its arrival. So that inhabitants in vulnerable coastal can prepared and respond rapidly. Sometime, you must heed the nature warning not only wait for alarm from warning system. Because some local tsunami where there may not be time for warning alarm, people should go to higher ground when you fell shaking, earthquake also is warning alarm. One effective tsunami warning system should be: 1. Confirm the potentially tsunami rapidly, assess the risk and immediate dissemination to the public. 2. Reduce the incidence of false alarms. To this day, American coastal communities have received almost 75% false alarms since the 1950 s. The false alarms reduce the confidence of citizens to warning system. (Ref 58) 3. The popularization of tsunami knowledge and some effective coastal fortifications, eg: shoreline barrier forests and seawalls. (Ref 59) Page 25 of 71 Plate Tectonics KEY WORDS: continental drift, seafloor spreading, plate tectonics, mid ocean ridge (MOR) system, spreading center, rise, divergent plate boundary, subduction zone, convergent plate boundary,

Pacific Tsunami Warning System - YouTub

Where is the Pacific Tsunami Warning System - Answer

Pacific nations test Tsunami warning system - The New York Time

  1. g that his department’s facilities and international connections were adequate, he explained that earthquake data had to be sent to a centre in California for processing. “That takes at least one hour. However such information cannot deter
  2. The warning system, which was in place from 1953-1992, used air raid sirens, TV bulletins and radio broadcasts to spread the terrifying news but, thankfully, the system was never used
  3. Tectonics Assessment / 1 TECTONICS ASSESSMENT 1. Movement along plate boundaries produces A. tides. B. fronts. C. hurricanes. D. earthquakes. 2. Which of the following is TRUE about the movement of continents?
  4. Plate Tectonics Chapter 2 Interactions at depend on the direction of relative plate motion and the type of crust. Which kind of plate boundary is associated with Earthquake activity? A. Divergent Boundary
  5. Dhamasaroj told the Australian: “I suggested an early warning system be put in place for tidal waves, such as alarm sirens at beachside hotels in Phuket, Phangnga and Krabi, the three provinces which have now been hit. I alerted senior officials in these provinces, but no one paid any attention.” He said that some provinces had banned him from entering their territories as “they said I was damaging their image with foreign tourists.”
  6. There is a warning system but on that day there was none. No siren or anything, said the 51-year-old civil servant, adding that he has never heard the warning system ever. Nugroho of the disaster..

So then all the countries of the Pacific countries came together under the framework of the United Nations and formed what is now know as the Pacific Tsunami Warning System The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) is one of two tsunami warning centers that are operated by NOAA in the United States. Headquartered on Ford Island, HI.. 41 Figure 4.13: Some contours of the bathymetry data overlaid on the wave image. (by National Geophysical Data Center) the contours show the depth decreases from east to west. From the right figure, we can see the reflected waves emanate from the shelf break. (Ref: D. A. SANTEK and A. WINGUTH; A satellite view of internal waves induced by the Indian Ocean tsunami ; Accepted by the International Journal of Remote Sensing (11 Nov 2005); Page17) The problem is that we don t know how much these waves change can bring the tsunami. So we should improve the measurements of physical and research tsunami-induced wave in detail. Thus, the satellite images will observe the tsunami-induced wave accurately through using this knowledge combine with remote sensing, GPS and bathymetry. (Ref 72) Tsunami warning based on remote sensing and GIS Early warning of tsunami needs multi-layer analyzing in order to detect traces of tsunami. A tsunami hazard map is good way to predict the future tsunami, and the rescue teams could take with the digital map of the areas where would have the large destroy by future tsunami. What s more, the evaluation of digital topographic data between the post-tsunami and the pre-tsunami also take a very important part. Landset data and Digital Elevation Model DEM) data which derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) were used for tsunami hazard map based Remote Page 41 of 71 2 ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MARINE WASTE WATER DISCHARGES MWWD 2002 - I STANBUL SEPT. 16 20 Numerical Modeling Earthquake Effects On Sea Outfall Systems : Kadýköy Sea Outfall Case Prof.Dr. Sedat Kabdaþlý 7 and fisherfolk, (Ref 8) but also on the tourism and fishing industries. What is more, in some region the supplies of drinking water and farm may have been polluted by marine water. (Ref 9) Besides, an enormous environmental influence would take a long time after tsunami, like ecosystem severe damage and the discharge of solid, liquid, and industrial wastes. (Ref 10) All the severe consequences caused were because there were not warning system for Indian Ocean. If we have, to great extend we would informed those people in time avoiding the facing danger, we also decrease the loss of any benefits to lowest point, including in the economic and environment, etc. In the same way, let us to see the Atlantic Ocean. Compared with Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean, most of people do not think Atlantic Ocean can be combined with tsunamis, but actually Atlantic Ocean do exist tsunami activities, there only has less seismic and volcanic activities. That is why there are fewer tsunamis here. The major of seismic and volcanic activities of Atlantic Ocean are mainly near the Caribbean Island and at the Scotia island arc chain approaching to Antarctica. Where there generates earthquake in subduction zones. Normally, the tsunamis in the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea would be generated by earthquake activity, besides, it also be triggered by volcanic eruption. Here we list some larger historic tsunamis in the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea. A near 9.0 magnitude earthquake happened 200m off the Portugese coast, which generates a tsunami with 10m in height and devastates the cities; (Ref 11) and a tsunami caused by a 7.5 magnitude earthquake happened in Puerto Rico in Just this water wave with 4-6m around the coast killed 40 people on the island. (Ref 12) In addition, we still can not neglect tsunamis triggered by landslides in Atlantic Ocean. Like the most recent tsunami happened in 1929, during the tsunami there were 28 people died along the Burin Peninsula of Newfoundland. (Ref 13) Just like the Indian Ocean, there was not early warning system in Atlantic Ocean. On the contrary, the tsunamis situations of Pacific Ocean are completely different from that of Indian Ocean and Atlantic Ocean because there is early warning system in Page 7 of 71

..warning system delivering timely and effective tsunami warnings to the Australian population. and Mitigation System, and contributes to the facilitation of tsunami warnings for the South West Pacific An updated alert system should be able to provide critical seconds of warning before an The federal agency gave $10.4 million to the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) for the next two years

33 Event Mode, this mode will be triggered when tsunami or earthquake happens. 1. Standard Mode s reports includes of average height of water, status indicator, battery information and time signal. One report is sent to transmission equipment every 6 hours. 2. Event Mode s data is quite the same as standard mode, but information was sent more often than data sent in standard mode. Process transmits immediately when the trigger situations are satisfied that means measurement and predicted value more than maximum value. (Ref 66) Surface Buoy The surface buoy relays data and commands between the tsunameter and the satellite. The buoy is connecting with an electronics which can get real-time record. In the tsunameter part, it is a process that using a pressure transducer measure the pressure acted by the water column staying the surface of water every 15 seconds.(ref 67) Because there is a crystal matter, which could shake resonantly. It can transfer data from the tsunameter to the buoy via an acoustic link. Through the GOES (geostationary operational environmental satellite), the data we got will send to the tsunami warning center. The buoy has two same electronic systems to prevent one of the electronic system does not work. The Standard Mode transmissions are put on a preset schedule in the electronic system. The Event Mode transmissions, depends on their importance degree, are transmitted by both systems at same time. (Ref 68) Page 33 of 71 The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) is one of two tsunami warning centers that are operated by NOAA in the United States. Headquartered in Ewa Beach, Hawaii.. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) provides warnings of tsunamis to the public and to organizations responsible for public safety in coastal areas of Hawai'i (since 1949), the Pacific Ocean.. It can take 15 to 20 minutes for quake data to be analysed and a tsunami watch to be issued to governments and the public around the Indian Ocean. Using their own data, nations warn citizens in a variety of ways – from radio, television, and text messages to sirens and mosque loudspeakers. The bibliography about the Pacific Warning System describes failures in warning signal interpretation, problems or false or minimal alerts, inadequate public responses to warnings, unknowing of..

Name Date Grade 5 SOL 5.6 Review Oceans Made by SOLpass - www.solpass.org solpass100@comcast.net Reproduction is permitted for SOLpass subscribers only. The concepts developed in this standard include DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes NAME: BLOCK: DATE: 1. Base your answer to the following question on The block diagram below shows the boundary between two tectonic plates. Which 4. Plate Tectonics II (p. 46-67) Seafloor Spreading In the early 1960s, samples of basaltic ocean crust were dredged up from various locations across the ocean basins. The samples were then analyzed to The US Navy Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) intends to award Lockheed Martin a new order for Long Range Anti-Ship Missile (LRASM) testing assets to achieve P-8 Poseidon MPA program..

Puzzling Evidence What evidence suggests that continents move? In the late 1800s, Alfred Wegener proposed his hypothesis of continental drift. According to this hypothesis, the continents once formed a Hazard Mapping and Vulnerability Assessment Mr. Toshiaki Udono Senior Project Manager, Kansai Division, PASCO Corporation, Japan Mr. Awadh Kishor Sah Project Manager, Project Implementation Department, Plate Tectonics: Big Ideas Our understanding of Earth is continuously refined. Earth s systems are dynamic; they continually react to changing influences from geological, hydrological, physical, chemical, ..System and improve capabilities to receive tsunami warnings in the South West Pacific, the Development of the Australian tsunami warning system. The ATWS Implementation Strategy and.. Name: Class: Date: ES Chapter 10 Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Scientists used the pattern of alternating normal and reversed

Curry School of Education, University of Virginia www.teacherlink.org/content/science/ Where in the World Are All the Earthquakes? In this activity, students go to the United States Geological Survey (USGS) aftershock: an earthquake that follows a larger earthquake or main shock and originates in or near the rupture zone of the larger earthquake. Generally, major earthquakes are followed by a number of aftershocks

Pacific tsunami warning system is creditable or not - PDF Free

The Asian tsunami: why there were no warnings - World Socialist Web

  2. Exercise Pacific Wave 2013 (PacWave13), as the test is called, simulates a tsunami warning About 75% of the world's deadly tsunamis have occurred in the Pacific Ocean and connected seas
  3. What are Tides? Tides are very long-period waves that move through the oceans as a result of the gravitational attraction of the Moon and the Sun for the water in the oceans of the Earth. Tides start in
  4. Chapter Overview CHAPTER 3 Marine Provinces The study of bathymetry charts ocean depths and ocean floor topography. Echo sounding and satellites are efficient bathymetric tools. Most ocean floor features

Cathay Pacific nor Swire could be contacted for a comment. What do you think of the airline's warning to workers? Do you think Cathay and Swire can successfully manage the various pressures facing the.. See more of US NWS Pacific Tsunami Warning Center on Facebook. Get Directions. +1 808-725-6300. Contact US NWS Pacific Tsunami Warning Center on Messenger There has been a warning system for tsunamis in place around the entire Pacific Ocean since the 1940s. In fact, Japan is probably even better prepared for a tsunami than the US is

Tsunami Practice Questions and Answers Revised November 2008

6 Chapter 2. Background In the following part, we will introduce the situations of tsunamis have happening in the three of the four big oceans in the world, Indian ocean, Atlantic Ocean and Pacific ocean respectively. Why we only talk the three is that there are quite frequency tsunamis happened here, especially in Pacific Ocean. It is known to all of us that in December 26, 2004 there was a devastating earthquake happened in Indian Ocean. It caused a series of ruinous tsunamis because of the undersea earthquake, which kills an enormous number of people s lives. And lots of coastal communities were also inundated by water, including Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand parts. Since its epicenter is the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia away. So how big the magnitude can trigger such devastated tsunami? The answer has been recorded as 9.0 on the Richter scale at the beginning; finally it has up to Such magnitude was recognized as the second largest earthquake and was also recorded on a seismography. In the same way, the longest lasting time of faulting, seconds, was also recorded on it. Maybe we could not be aware of the serious degree of such magnitude. We can describe it in nature, the total release amount in energy from Indian ocean earthquake has been estimated as 3.35 exajoules, which equals to joules, also equals to 0.8 Gigaton of TNT. Or you can say such great amount of energy can be used in United States for 11 days. As a result, a serious of waves up to 30m (100 feet) constantly rushed towards the shores of Indonesia, and other countries. (Ref 5) One recent analysis list showed, there were totally 229,866 people lost, in which 186,983 dead and 42,883 missing. (Ref 6) In addition of the serious impact to life, the serious consequences were followed, for example humanitarian, economic and environmental were all suffered to great extent. Humanitarian aid was needed because of destroy of the infrastructure, deficiency of water and food. A serious of diseases, like cholera, diphtheria, was spreaded everywhere because of lack of sanitation facilities. (Ref 7) The impact of economic was not only on coastal fishing communities Page 6 of 7120 (Ref 39) If the slow earthquake is happened, the long period surface waves are more than 250 seconds. We can use other equation which is between the seismic moment and this moment magnitude scale Mw: (Ref 40) Mw = 0.67log10Mo WHERE: Mw is moment magnitude scale (dimensionless) So, according to these two equations, we can get the magnitude scales for earthquake in different periods Tsunami waves and its Magnitude scales As we all know, the tsunami is generated by large earthquake. In the nature of things, the tsunamis also have waves and magnitude scales. Universally, the tsunami waves are much like sinusoidal wave in the open sea. The run-up phenomenon happens as waves flowing into shore area. The waves are much like solitary wave. They have wavelength and period. But the first one has deep-water height. The second one just has the wave height at shore. As the tsunami is generated, the several large waves travel in deep water which is less than 0.4m in height. (Ref 41) If the waves in the deep water, the ratios are height: wavelength. Contrarily, if the waves in the shallow, the ratios are height: water depth. Here, the height is from crest to trough wave height. "Tsunami wave characteristics are highly variable." (Ref 42) So, sometimes, the waves include an initial peak. It will taper off in height exponentially over four to six hours. (Ref 43) Normally, the period of tsunami is seconds ( minutes). (Ref 44) The speed of period traveling is km/hr ( m/s) in the deepest part of open sea. The wave moving to the shore from the open sea will be slower and slower. Page 20 of 71

Pacific Northwest developing warning system for big quake

  1. Rainstorm Warning System. The rainy season in Hong Kong is normally between April and September. Rain could be particularly heavy and persistent during May and June, causing severe traffic disruption..
  2. ology Welcome to the World Bank Institute s (WBI) Distance Learning (DL) course on Earthquake Risk

Chapter 7 Earthquake Hazards Practice Exam and Study Guide

Plate Tectonics The unifying concept of the Earth sciences. The outer portion of the Earth is made up of about 20 distinct plates (~ 100 km thick), which move relative to each other This motion is what EARTH SCIENCE ACTIVITY #1 Tsunami in a Bottle Grades 3 and Up This activity is one of several in a basic curriculum designed to increase student knowledge about earthquake science and preparedness. The

Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics -- Multi-format Test

Earth Science Regents Questions: Plate Tectonics Name: Date: Period: August 2013 Due Date: 17 Compared to the oceanic crust, the continental crust is (1) less dense and more basaltic (3) more dense and 298 10.14 INVESTIGATION How Did These Ocean Features and Continental Margins Form? The terrain below contains various features on the seafloor, as well as parts of three continents. Some general observations

1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers. Which statement about the deposition of the sediments best explains why these layers have the curved shape shown? 1) Sediments were The warning system which provides coordinated tsunami threat information to countries throughout the Pacific marks its 50th anniversary next week. New Zealand will play a part in an International.. The failure to establish such a system is bound up with shortsightedness, inertia and outright contempt—especially on the part of the major powers—for the lives of the oppressed masses of southern Asia. Destructive tsunamis are actually more common in the Indian Ocean than in the Pacific Ocean, but none of the G-8 countries borders the region. Both Japan and the United States have spent millions on a string of tsunameters and monitoring stations in the Pacific to protect their coastlines, but, prior to last week’s disaster, neither country offered to pay for its extension to the Indian.

Although Sri Lanka is not part of the Pacific tsunami warning system, through the efforts of the Hawaii station some officials were informed that a tsunami could be developing. The wave took about two hours to cross the Bay of Bengal and hit the island’s east coast. Essential Question: How did the theory of Plate Tectonics evolve? 1. Look at a globe or a map of the Earth. Name the continents. (7 points) 2. How many continents are there? (3 points) 3. On a sheet of Geol 101: Physical Geology PAST EXAM QUESTIONS LECTURE 4: PLATE TECTONICS II 4. Which of the following statements about paleomagnetism at spreading ridges is FALSE? A. there is a clear pattern of paleomagnetic

Right now, tsunami warning systems rely on region-specific scenarios based on previous patterns in that area. Acoustical Society of America (ASA). A warning system for tsunamis. ScienceDaily Contact Robert Lundahl & Associates: 415.205.3481. One of 39 episodes of Digital Journey: Stories from a Networked Planet, produced for Sun Microsystems and.. 36 buoy. In Standard Mode, transmissions occur once every six hours. Transmitting timed water-column height data can make sure that the DART II system works in normal condition. If there is no data transmitted from tsunameter, the buoy will send coordinates instead of water column height data. Then the center will check and ensure that buoy is not parted from its anchor The transition of Satellite----Ground Station DART II uses the Iridium Satellite network. Data that from every part of DART II is stored in a server via the Iridium Gateway and RUDICS server. Also, these data are monitored by warning center. Further more, the data is sent to web server and can be browsed by anyone. Usually, sea level or tide data are relayed from satellite to ground stations to make sure that the system is in normal condition. When an event is detected, the procedure of the data will be transmitted similarly to the two transitions The application of satellite technology in TWS Generally, in DART, the transmission of messages through seabed pressure gauges connected buoys and then transmitted via satellite to warning centers. Pressure gauge is very accurate, but it's so expensive that hinder the deployment and application. So scientists came up with the use of satellite to detect the tsunami. Unlike conventional observations, such as tide gaugessatellite can observe the Change in the sea surface height, far-flung trends of the tsunami wave and the profiles Page 36 of 71

China's new missile attack warning system will reduce the probability of conflicts between nuclear powers. By assisting China in creating this system, Russia is contributing to strategic stability and.. Researchers were working on a tsunami warning system for Indonesia. Southeast Asia's largest economy sits on the Ring of Fire, a belt of sites around the Pacific Ocean where many earthquakes.. All of the sensors, including seismological input, have to be linked to round-the-clock monitoring stations manned by trained scientific staff. Equally important is a program of training and education designed to make officials and the public aware of the dangers and what to do in the event of a warning.

Layers of the Earth s Interior 1 Focus Question How is the Earth like an ogre? 2 Objectives Explain how geologists have learned about the interior of the Earth. Describe the layers of the Earth s interior. Definition of ITSU, what does ITSU mean, meaning of ITSU, ICG for the Tsunami Warning System The following image shows one of the definitions of ITSU in English: ICG for the Tsunami Warning.. While Narasimha’s indignation is justly directed at the Indian administration, his comments constitute an indictment of other regional governments and the major capitalist powers, which routinely wash their hands of any responsibility for the plight of the masses of South Asia. The cost of establishing a tsunami warning system in the Indian Ocean is a pittance compared to the huge profits amassed by US, European and Japanese corporations through the exploitation of the region’s cheap labour. In the final analysis, the absence of adequate disaster management systems is a product of the same social and economic order that condemns billions of people to wretched daily poverty and treats their sufferings as inevitable and unavoidable.

Chile earthquake: How good is Pacific tsunami warning system

Early warning is an essential component of prevention, and the United Nations carefully monitors Peacebuilding involves action by a wide array of organizations of the UN system, including the World.. The Great Pacific Garbage Patch stretches across a swath of the North Pacific Ocean, forming a nebulous, floating junk yard on the high seas. It's the poster child for a worldwide problem: plastic that.. A great 8.8-magnitude struck central Chile early Saturday. The quake hit 200 miles (325 kilometers) southwest of the capital Santiago. The epicenter was just 70 miles (115 kilometers) from Concepcion, The heart of the Voice Warning System is a microprocessor-based electronic speech module made by National Semiconductor Сorp There is no such system in the Indian Ocean. Of the 11 countries affected by last week’s calamity, only Thailand and Indonesia belong to the Pacific Ocean tsunami warning system. Most of the nations have seismological units that detected the earthquake. Not all quakes, however, generate tsunamis. In the absence of planning, preparation and additional equipment, it is difficult to make accurate predictions. And time is of the essence, since tsunami waves travel at speeds of up to 800kmh, depending on the depth of the water.

Samoa tsunami lesson: Early warning system too slow

Pacific rim countries to test their tsunami warning system

  1. Other scientists have made similar proposals, which have been shelved or stalled for lack of funds. According to Nature, “The need for a similar system in the Indian Ocean [to the Pacific] has been discussed at regular intervals by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, the UN body that runs the Pacific network, since at least 1999.” Vasily Titov, a tsunami researcher in the US told the magazine: “It is always on the agenda... Only two weeks ago it would have sounded crazy. But it sounds very reasonable now. The millions of dollars needed would have saved thousands and thousands of lives.”
  2. Chapter 7 Earthquake Hazards Practice Exam and Study Guide 1. Select from the following list, all of the factors that affect the intensity of ground shaking. a. The magnitude of the earthquake b. Rather
  3. ate natural hazards but can engage in activities that reduce their impacts by identifying high-risk locations, improving construction methods, and
  4. Assessment of Impact of the December 26, 2004 Tsunami In Aceh Province Indonesia Jay H. Samek, David L. Skole, and Walter Chomentowski December 30, 2004 Center for Global Change and Earth Observations
  5. Warning light still shows up. I even tried just for fun disconnecting the battery for awhile to reset and reconnecting, still no luck. I don't have any fancy stereo equipment hooked up (yet) besides just the..
  6. The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

Earthquake-warning system that could provide smartphone alerts to

That system hopes to add one minute more warning in a few years. So best case these systems Those don't exist on the Pacific coast of Washington. Simulations show the initial tsunami wave from.. The Tsunami Warning System (TWS) in the Pacific, comprised of 26 participating international Member States, has the functions of monitoring seismological and tidal stations throughout the.. Thompson/Ocean 420/Winter 2005 Tide Dynamics 1 Tide Dynamics Dynamic Theory of Tides. In the equilibrium theory of tides, we assumed that the shape of the sea surface was always in equilibrium with the

Effects of Climate Change on Human Mobility in the PacificNASA's Aqua Satellite eyes Tropical Cyclone Oma near Vanuatu

PTWS - Pacific Tsunami Warning System

The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), uses seismic data and a system of ocean buoys to monitor tsunami activity.. Official tsunami warning capability in the US began in 1949, in response to a 1946 tsunami generated in the Aleutian Islands that wreaked havoc on Hilo, Hawaii. The federal government already housed the Honolulu Geomagnetic Observatory in ʻEwa Beach, and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center moved in. Takeoff Configuration Warning System. Takeoff Warning System. TOWS. A Takeoff Configuration Warning System is a safety device intended to help ensure that takeoff is not attempted with the aircraft in an inappropriate or unsafe configuration 12 important cause is earthquakes, less commonly one is landslides happening under sea, and submarine volcanic eruption is still small reason, but it seldom appear, and very rarely is by large meteorite influence in the ocean. (Ref 18) In our project we mainly focus on the most essential cause earthquakes Plate Tectonic As is known to all of us, the happening of earthquake is because of the movement of plate tectonics. Plate tectonic is composed of a small number of lithosphere plates; usually they are km thick or so. They swim in the region of asthenosphere. Generally speaking, these plates move to each other at rate of 10 cm/year. And the inter-cross region of two plates is called boundary. There are two kinds of types based on the way of plate moves relevant to another. One plate moves away from another one that is called spreading. On the contrary, the plate moves towards to another and slides beneath it that is subduction. And then transform, in which the two plates keep horizontal each other after sliding. (Ref 19)Besides, we also need to know what is ring of fire. It is around pacific rims where the boundary of Pacific Ocean. Pacific plate is surrounded by a zone of very active features in the crust of earth. That included deep ocean trenches, volcanic islands or volcanic mountain chains and many of subduction zones. Frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions make the rim of Pacific Plate the most geologically active region on the earth. The follow picture specifically shows the ring of fire. (Ref 20) Page 12 of 71

The tsunami is expected to fan out across much of the Pacific Ocean, according to The Weather Channel. Its power is concentrated westward toward French Polynesia, including Tahiti, with the lead tsunami waves already reaching as far west as the Chatham Islands (part of New Zealand), where a 1.2 foot wave height was measured at Owenga. Shake, Rattle, and Roll What happens during an earthquake? As plates of the lithosphere move, the stress on rocks at or near the edges of the plates increases. This stress causes faults to form. A fault 31 The acoustic modem uses almost same battery packs but with over 2000 watt-houses of energy. This kind of batteries can continue working for four years Tsunami Detection Algorithm When tsunami detection algorithm works, firstly, it will estimate the amplitude of pressure fluctuation, after this, the tsunami detection algorithm will test the amplitudes against a beginning data. If the amplitudes are bigger than the beginning, the tsunameter will exchange to the Event Mode and gives the details data of the tsunami. Each tsunameter in dart system can detect and report tsunamis by itself, not send all of the data to the center or instructions from land, because that can avoid waste resource. The tsunami detection algorithm in the survey's software works by first estimating the amplitudes of the pressure fluctuations within the tsunami frequency band and then testing these amplitudes against a threshold value. The amplitudes are computed by subtracting predicted pressures from the observations, in which the predictions closely match the tides and lower frequency fluctuations. In the easy way to say is follow the data they got from the tsunameter, compare with threshold value, prognosticate what will we obtain later. The predictions are updated per 15 seconds, which is the sampling interval of the DART gauges. When the receiver get a non-trigger signal from tsunami waveform detector, Tsunami Detection Algorithm and system return to the normal status model which is called standard status. Critical minimum value for oceanic noise detection evaluated on past observations data. The North Pacific is 3 cm (or 30 mm). When an earthquake causing a tide wave and the amplitudes over the critical value, the report sending process goes into event mode and continuing remain this situation at least four hours. (The tides and lower frequency signals are predicted within a few millimeters using a cubic polynomial that is fit to bottom pressure observations over the past three hours) Page 31 of 71 Ancient Greeks tried to explain earthquakes and volcanic activity by saying that a massive bull lay underground and the land shook when it became angry. Modern theories rely on an understanding of what The Pacific Northwest DEWS is a collaborative federal, tribal, state, and local interagency effort to improve early warning capacity and resilience to drought in the region

Landslides Learn if landslides, including debris flows, could occur in your area by contacting local officials, your state geological survey or department of natural resources, or the geology department Although the system occasionally suffers from false alarms, pilots are now under strict instructions to regard all TCAS messages as genuine alerts demanding an immediate, high-priority response

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Pacific Tsunami Warning System 50th Anniversar

Lecture 7 Plates and Mantle Plumes Transform Boundaries Transform boundaries occur where one segment of rigid lithosphere slides horizontally past another in response to stresses in the lithosphere. The System monitors audio warn in progress. Terrain display control arinc 453 ARINC 562 — Terrain Avoidance and Warning System: This proposed ARINC characteristic will be.. Page 1 of 7 EENS 3050 Tulane University Natural Disasters Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Earthquake Hazards and Risks This page last updated on 28-Aug-2013 Earthquake Risk Many seismologists have said that "earthquakes Name: Class: Date: Earth Science Chapter 14 Section Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following is NOT one of the three

Pacific Tsunami Warning System - Japan 8

A powerful magnitude-8.3 earthquake struck just off the coast of Chile on Wednesday evening, generating a dangerous 15-foot tsunami along parts of the Chilean coast and triggering tsunami advisories in Hawaii and southern California. Pacific Business Associates - USA. Pacific Eagle Capital - New Zealand. Pan Pacific Bank - Singapore, UK, Gambia. Panamian Trust and Savings Guarantee - Panama

Earthquake Early Warning Pacific Northwest Seismic Networ

Ideal Early Warning Systems Provide warning in sufficient time for action Are affordable • Require minimal skill and training to operate and maintain Give acceptable false positive or false negative.. 39 On 26 December 2004, the devastating tsunami in the Indian Ocean caused by Sumatra-Andaman earthquake was detected by satellite altimeters. To this time measure as an example, we choose one belt-like trenches and make the distributions of the sampling points before and after tsunami (as show in Figure 4.10). At first, the satellite will make choice of one target area, and get some sampling points, the sampling points we get more, the results we get well and truly. Secondly, satellite will record the data of averaged sea surface height before tsunami happens and that after. Then make the differences (averaged sea surface height after the earthquake minus that before).if the result we get is 30km. That means average height of sea surface at all points fall in the range of 30±10 km from the Sunda Trench. Figure 4.11: The x- axis is the distance from the Sunda Trench in km, and the y-axis is the height of sea surface in cm. The small dots is the sampling points, and large dots with error(may be caused by the accuracy of the satellite altimeters) show the averaged height of sea surface. (Ref: Yutaka Hayashi, Nobuo Hamada, Tsurane Kuragano, Toshiyuki Sakurai, Hiromi Takayama, Yohei Hasegawa and Kenji Hirata; Change in the sea surface height observed by satellite altimetry before and after the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake ; 2005; Page7) The observation of internal waves by satellite The satellite could detect the tsunami-induced wave patterns which is significant Page 39 of 71

Pacific Warning System Established in 1946 Tide Course Her

22 In this formula, the Hrmax is maximum run-up height of a tsunami above sea level, the unit is m. The Hs is wave height at shore, the unit is m as well. The B is slope of the seabed, the unit is degrees. (Ref 49) After that, we can get the formula of velocity of run-up by the velocity of tsunami wave in open sea. So the formula is: H s = d v r = 2(gh) 0.5 In this formula, the v r is velocity of run-up, the unit is m/s. (Ref 50) But, when the run-up is happened at the shore, slope and bed roughness will influence the velocity of run-up. So, according it, we need think about the slope. So the formula is: v r = H s 0.7 {tan(b w )} 0.5 /n In this formula, the B w is slope of the water surface, the unit is degrees. The n is manning roughness coefficient, the unit is dimensionless. (Ref 51) The earthquakes have magnitude scales. The tsunamis also have magnitude scales. For researching more deeply, the tsunami magnitude scales are introduced. At first, the simpler formula is the Imamura-Iida scale. It was used between in the Japan. (Ref 52) The formula is: mii = log 2 H rmax In this formula, the mii is the tsunami magnitude scale of Imamura-Iida, the unit is dimensionless. (Ref 53) Page 22 of 71 What does TWSP stand for? TWSP stands for Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific (US NOAA). Suggest new definition Plate Tectonics Web-Quest Part I: Earth s Structure. Use the following link to find these answers: http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/structure.html 1. Label the layers of Earth in the diagram Error:

Interactive Plate Tectonics Directions: Go to the following website and complete the questions below. http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/index.html How do scientists learn about the interior 23 The formula can represent us the magnitude scale in Japan. But, as we all know, "Japanese tsunami have between 1 and 10% of the total energy of the source earthquake." (Ref 54) So, according to the earthquake magnitude, we can estimate the tsunami magnitude scale. For example, in the Japan, if the earthquake magnitude is more than 7.0, the tsunami magnitude is more than 0; the maximum run-up height is more than 1m. It means the tsunami will be generated and the wave height will be more 1m. After 1960, this formula was extended to worldwide. Because of the different maximum run-up height along coast, so the change is necessary. It became: i s = log 2 (1.4H r ) In this formula, the i s is tsunami intensity of Soloviev, the H r is mean tsunami run-up height along a stretch of coast, the unit is m. (Ref 55) These two formulas did not refer to the earthquake. The factors of earthquake should be combined with the formula. So, the formula was made more identifiable: M t = log 10 H r C In this formula, M t is tsunami magnitude at a coast. The C is a small correction dependent on source region. (Ref 56) By the development and impeccability, the Re is defined, it means the shortest distance to the epicenter of a earthquake that can cause tsunami, and the unit is km. So, the formula is become: mii = 2.7(log 10 H r + log 10 Re)- 4.3 This formula is a final one for tsunami magnitude scales. The constant means it is around the Japan. If tsunami is in other area, it can be changed base upon the condition of the area. (Ref 57) Page 23 of 712 ABSTRACT Tsunami, one of the most horrible disasters in the earth, the killer wave contains incogitable powerful energy rushing to the shore and coastline. Nowadays the best way for avoiding the tragedy is to use Tsunami Warning System (TWS) to forecast. How does it work? Does it could be reliable enough? These questions attract us to find answer and make discovery. Before understanding the truth of TWS, the first important knowledge that can not be missed is Plate tectonic. Because most of tsunamis were generated by landslide, volcano happened under ocean and undersea earthquake which the sources cause Plate moving and crushing to each other. Then our eyes move to the knowledge about gravity wave transfers under the water (oceans). This is the key element that detected by warning system, according to analyze the data of wave s velocity, the warning system can calculate the time of tsunami arriving. When the wave runs up the sea level and makes an inundation. Generally speaking, TWS is a tool for detecting and analyzing (e.g. the source of tsunami, velocity, depth and wave height, mode the potential inundation area). So firstly we need to collect data for different elements in TWS; then analyzing a real case under different situation and try to give an answer about the operation of TWS; finally we can see whether the TWS can be used in other oceans. We believe with the development of human culture and technology, TWS will be consummate one day. And at that time, people will not get so much loss as today by tsunami. Page 2 of 71 Terrain Awareness Warning Systems is a term often used to indicate an Enhanced GPWS There are still however, limitations to theses systems that require the pilots to use their experience and.. Seismographs Lesson 7 E arthquakes generate seismic waves that travel all around the world and can be detected by sensitive instruments called seismographs. The earliest instrument to detect earthquakes

PACIFIC TSUNAMI: CONTINUING RESEARCH AND FORMATION OF A MUSEUM EXHIBIT Melissa Ann Meiner Geology/Marine Science Department University of Hawai i at Hilo Hilo, HI 96720 ABSTRACT The Sumatran tsunami was 37 of the sea surface. These data can be used to checkup the experiments and research of tsunami warning model. In addition, satellite observations have also found tsunami caused by ocean dynamic phenomena (eg: wind and eddies). (Ref 71) Satellite Altimetry Satellite altimetry is one kind of microwave radar to measure the distance to the sea surface, and it can directly detect the propagating of tsunami in oceans. The sea surface heights will be changed before tsunamis happened, so that propagating tsunamis could be observed by satellites, and only if when satellites have proper tracks. In a general way, NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) used altimeters on the satellites (TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1 by NASA, USA and CNES, France) to observe and measure the difference in sea surface height. But in the fact, the results are always influenced by effects of sea currents, sea temperature and wind on the sea, other oceanic phenomena and errors. So, satellite altimetry also should analyze and eliminate these effects. Page 37 of 71Last week’s catastrophe also raises broader questions. The absence of a tsunami warning system for southern Asia is symptomatic of the general state of affairs regarding disasters, such as flooding and cyclones, that occur regularly throughout the region. The very scale of the tsunami tragedy has provoked the sympathy of ordinary people around the world, compelling governments to respond, even if insufficiently and belatedly. Yet every year thousands of impoverished people die or become homeless as a result of natural disasters in Asia, and the events barely rate a mention in the international media.

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Using Google Earth to Explore Plate Tectonics Laurel Goodell, Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 laurel@princeton.edu Inspired by, and borrows from, the GIS-based Exploring An hour later, the centre revised its initial estimate of the size of the tremor from 8 to 8.5, and issued a second alert, warning of a possible tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Frantic phone calls were made to issue warnings. But without procedures in place for the Indian Ocean, it was hit and miss. “We started thinking about who we could call. We talked to the State Department Operations Centre and to the military. We called embassies. We talked to the navy in Sri Lanka, any local government official we could get hold of,” geophysicist Barry Hirshorn told the Honolulu Advertiser. Name: Date: 1. The road shown below was suddenly broken by a natural event. 3. The convergence of two continental plates would produce Which natural event most likely caused the crack in the road? island A vital part of tsunami detection are deep ocean sensors that measure pressure from the sea floor and ping satellites with real-time data. Prior to the 2004 tsunami, there were 6 such buoys in places across the Pacific Ocean, in places NOAA deemed most at risk for big wave activity. Following the 2004 tsunami, the array was expanded to 39 buoys.

The warning system has been in place since 1965, but Tuesday's exercise was its first extensive The Indian Ocean tsunami in December 2004 prompted improvements in the Pacific warning system Hurricanes and Storm Surge www.hcfcd.org High-level winds fl ow outward Strong surface winds spiral inward EYE Calm, sometimes cloudfree, sinking air Air sinks in calm area at the storm s eye THUNDERSTORMS

Tsunamis | Disasters Downunder

Countries bordering on the Pacific Ocean are testing their capacity to handle a major tsunami in an The purpose of the Group is to coordinate the establishment of tsunami warning systems in the.. Pacific Tsunami Warning System. ROBERT LUNDAHL FILMMAKING 246 views8 year ago. A Warning from the Center of the World: Pacific Nation Kiribati Is Disappearing as Sea Level Rises For the Altera Avalon JTAG UART and DMA Controller components, Qsys generates messages similar to the following: Warning: No matching role found for jtag_uart_0:avalon_jtag_slave:dataavailable.. While an official warning may have come too late for many on Aceh’s west coast, the lack of basic education probably lifted the toll by thousands. After the tremor, the sea suddenly retreated hundreds of metres, but no one knew what this meant. Intrigued by the phenomenon, villagers, particularly children, followed the water out, picking up stranded fish, only to be engulfed by the wall of water that followed. Many simply stood there transfixed and uncomprehending.

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